Construction projects are characterized as complex and risky due to the involvement of many contracting parties and the higher costs of project development. The Construction industry is struggling with many problems and its productivity is clearly decreasing. Many efforts to tackle these problems have been made, but have seen to fall short. Recently a new approach, outside from the traditional model, seems to have the answers to those problems. Thus, this study aims to analyse said approach. This new methodology, based on the principles of the Toyota Production System develop by Ohno, is called Lean Construction. By performing a literature review, the conceptual basis of the lean principles in manufacturing will be analyzed. A review of the actual Construction Industry practices is presented, to later explain the failures of the model and the criticism of made by the scholar behind Lean Construction. With that, the conceptual bases of Lean Construction develop by Lauri Koskela are presented, which shows the applicability of manufacturing principles to construction and the new Transformation, Flow, Values views of construction. Lean Construction in detailed, as well as its application methodologies, taking a special focus on the Last Planner System, which provides a new form of planning and production control to the industry. Finally, through the study of two cases, the success of the model shown.