Education policies in the last years have focused on access and at less extent quality of education. In the case of Colombia, and particularly in the city of Bogotá, they have also been characterized by their targeting nature, assigning scarce resources to students from low socio economic backgrounds in public schools. This study questions at what extent such policies can contribute to reduce social exclusion in the presence of a highly segmented society. It suggests that this kind of policies have contributed to raise accessibility and quality to education. However, they have failed in two ways: First, by their nature, they have strengthened a polarized or segmented education system, eroding social cohesion. Secondly, they have diverted attention from other non educational factors such as differentials in social capital that contribute to reproduce the unequal structures of society and thus generate social exclusion.