Wind power is one of the key players in the European Union target of 20% share of energy from renewable sources in 2020 to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and dependence on energy supply. In order to accomplish such target, some European countries are placing the wind farms further from the coast to exploit the higher wind speeds at open sea. However the traditional transmission system for offshore wind farms based on High Voltage Alternate Current (HVAC) is not appropriate for long distances. Hence, this research work was carried out to examine and determine the most suitable transmission system for offshore wind farms in terms of technical, environmental and economic costs. The methodological approach employed in the investigations was arranged in two parts. First, a quantitative and qualitative method of literature review involving critical examination of documented information and experiences of the two commercially available transmission systems: HVAC and HVDC (High Voltage Direct Current); second, a quantitative method that investigates and analyzes an adequate transmission system for a propose an offshore wind cluster in terms of economic and environmental costs. From the analysis, HVDC based on Voltage Source Converters (VSC) exhibited technical superiority over HVAC for long distance submarine transmission, control of active and reactive power, grid support and connection of asynchronous grids. Furthermore, in the proposed offshore wind farm cluster of 1 GW of installed capacity located at 150 km from the point of connection, after a distance of 90 km HVDC becomes more economic due to reduced system losses, and after a distance of 125 km HVDC presents lower environmental impacts associated with the raw materials used in the transmission system. At such point, particular to each transmission project, VSC-HVDC surpasses HVAC in technical, environmental and economic terms.
Agregar etiquetas para Transmission systems for offshore wind farms: a technical, environmental and economic assessment = Sistemas de transmisión para parques eólicos marinos: evaluación técnica, ambiental y económica