The Colombian composition, “Caimaré” (1949), by Luis Uribe Bueno (1916-2000) is a rare example of music written for saxophone and orchestra in Latin America. This piece reaches a particular importance in the repertoire for saxophone and orchestra because not only does it open a window into Colombian musical culture at the time, but it also presents a conciliation of the diverse musical elements that represented national identity of Colombia at that time. Additionally, the piece also raises some unsettling questions: Why did Luis Uribe Bueno compose music for saxophone and orchestra when the saxophone is an uncommon instrument in classical music and even more so in Andean Colombian music? Why did he write the piece? For whom? Was Caimaré just an isolated example, or were there other similar pieces? What were the music-cultural influences? In this paper, I will survey key aspects of Caimaré and its relationship to thehistory, composition, and performance of saxophone music in Colombia. I will show how the saxophone played a predominant role in the popular music of the Atlantic coastal region, as opposed to its relative rarity in the classical music tradition and in Andean folkloric contexts. My study will explore the role of the saxophone in one of the most representative tropical bands in Colombian music, Lucho Bermudez' s orchestra, and the influence that orchestra had on Uribe Bueno’s composition. Finally, this study will illustrate how Uribe Bueno combined traditional Spanish rhythms from the pasodoble and Caribbean influences from the Cuban bolero within the traditional Colombian pasillo in his representation of national music identity.