This article attempts to analyze the discourse underlying the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples and the confronting voices of the four countries that voted against this instrument. Through a frame analysis, the conception of (human) rights, development, well-being, lands, and the very notion of nation-state will be presented with regard to the two opposing views. Frames change throughout time; they are dynamic. Thus, what appears to be not negotiable today can be debated in the future. The very fact that indigenous peoples are regarded as an important actor in the international fora is something which was not thought some decades ago. The recognition of different ways of being developed is gaining interest. This article explores the pros and cons of this political struggle. To determine which position is the most convincing would depend on the reader’s background, values, and interests.